It is well recognized that the sustainable development goals are all interconnected, in a system of growth. We cannot aim to achieve just one goal; rather we have to achieve them all, which is called the characteristics of integration and interrelationships of goals, targets and indicators are not so simple. Some goals and targets interact with others more strongly than others. Some targets reinforce each other. Others may conflict with one another. Some may be necessary for others to be achieved. It is well acknowledged that International Communities plan and policies need to address the complex and dynamic interactions into account for implementation of SDGs. The heads of the state and government and high representatives, meeting at the United Nations headquarters in New York from 25 to 27 September 2015 agreed a new 2030 agenda for sustainable development, built around 17 goals, 169 targets and 230 indicators (UN: SDG, 2015). The 2030 agenda and it’s 17 sustainable development goals build on the millennium development goals but are mass broader in scope and ambition, in compassing the eradication of poverty, hunger and improved health and nutrition; reduction of inequality, the promotion of gender equality, empowerment of women and girls, the protection of human rights and so on.
Pledge of Agenda:
The agenda is complemented by two other major Global commitments of 2015. The Addis-Ababa Action Agenda which provides a Framework for financial and nonfinancial means of implementation and the Paris climate agreement with which all actions undertaken to further the agenda must be compatible (UN: SDG, 2015). In close collaboration with the rest of the United Nations system FAO has been a key player in raising awareness and providing guidance on Sustainable aquaculture development and management, primarily through the code of conduct for responsible Fisheries and its associated technical guidance.
Background and Context:
Sustainable development has been a key term and concept in development terminology since the publication of the Brundtland Report. However, international commitments to the concepts underlying sustainable development go back at least as far as 1972 Stockholm Declaration on the human environment and even club of Rome in 1962. The Stockholm Declaration included a set of principles that foreshadow many of those subsequently articulated in major International agreements on sustainable development including-
- An integrated and coordinated approach to development planning is needed and such planning should be capable of reconciling the needs of development and environment and maximizing social, economic and environmental benefits;
- Science, technology and environmental education may underpin improved environmental management;
- Nations have sovereign rights to exploit own resources and corresponding responsibilities;
- Environmental degradation may have International implications and may need International solutions.
Major Three Goals of SDGs:
Among the 17 goals there are three major goals. Such as SDG 5 achieves gender equality and empower all women and girls. SDG 5 has 9 targets, 14 indicators and 15 providers. Next one id SDG 3 ensures healthy lives and promotes wellbeing for all at all ages. SDG 3 has 13 targets, 27 indicators and 29 providers. The last one is SDG 15 protects, restore and promote sustainable use of Terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification halt, reserve Land Degradation and halt biodiversity loss. SDG 15 has 12 targets, 14 indicators and 11 providers. Three goals International commitment is given below:
Protect, Restore and Promote Sustainable Development Goal:
There are some encouraging Global trends in protecting Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. Forest loss is slowing down, more key biodiversity areas are protected and more financial assistance is following towards biodiversity protection. Yet, 2020 targets of sustainable development goals 15 are unlikely to be met, land degradation countries, biodiversity loss is occurring at an alarming rate and invasive species and the illicit poaching and restore vital ecosystems and species.
- Protecting important sites for Terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity is vital for ensuring long term and sustainable use of Terrestrial and freshwater natural resources. the Global mean percentage of each key biodiversity area covered by protected areas increased from 33.1 percent in 2000 to 46.1 percent in 2018 for Terrestrial areas, from 30.5 percent in 2000 to 43.2 percent in 2018 for freshwater areas and from 32.9 percent in 2000 to 44.7 percent in 2018 for mountain areas;
- Human life depends on the earth as much as the ocean for our sustain and livelihoods. Plant provides 80% of our human diet and we rely on agriculture as an important economic resource and means of development. International communities think that forests account for 30% of the earth’s surface, providing vital habitats for millions of species and important sources for clean air and water, as well as being crucial for combating climate change. Today we are seeing unprecedented Land Degradation and the loss of arable land at 30 to 35 times the historical rate. Drought and desertification is also on the Rise each year, amounting to the loss of 12 million hectares and affects poor communities globally. Of the 8300 animal breeds known 8 percent are extinct and 22% are at risk of extinction. The SDGs aim to conserve and restore the use of Terrestrial ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, dry lands and mountains by 2020. Halting deforestation is also vital to mitigate the impact of Climate Change. Urgent action must be taken to reduce the loss of natural habitats and biodiversity which are part of our common heritage.
Ensure Healthy Lives and Promote Well:
Major progress has been made in improving the health of millions of people, increasing life expectancy, reducing maternal and child mortality and fighting against leading communicable diseases. However progress has stalled or is not happening fast enough with regard to addressing major diseases, such as malaria and tuberculosis, while at least half the Global population does not have access to essential health services and many of those who do suffer undue financial hardship, potentially pushing them into extreme poverty.
- The under five mortality rate fell to 39 deaths per 1000 live births in 2017, a 6.7 percent reduction from 42 deaths in 2015 and an overall reduction of 49% from 77 deaths per 1000 live births in 2000. The total number of under five deaths dropped to 5.4 million in 2017 from 9.8 million in 2000;
- Immunization saves millions of lives and is widely recognized as one of the worlds most successful and cost effective health interventions. Coverage of the required dosage of the vaccine that prevents diphtheria, tetanus and pertusis increased from 72 percent 2000 to 85 percent in 2015 and has remained unchanged between 2015 and 2017.
We have made huge strides in reducing child mortality, improving maternal health and fighting HIV or AIDS, malaria and other diseases. Since 1990, there has been an over 50 percent decline in preventable child deaths globally. Maternal mortality also fell by 45 percent worldwide. New HIV or AIDS infections fell by 30 percent between 2000 and 2013 and over 6.2 million children still die before their 5th birthday every year. 16000 children die each day from preventable diseases. Everyday hundreds of women die during pregnancy or from child birth related complications. In many rural areas, only 56 percent of births are attended by skilled professionals. AIDS is now the leading cause of death among teenagers in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region still severely devastated by the HIV epidemic. This death can be avoided through prevention and treatment, education, immunization campaigns, sexual and reproductive Health Care. The sustainable development goals make a Bolt commitment to end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other communicable diseases by 2030. The aim is to achieve Universal health coverage and provide access to safe and affordable medicines and vaccines for all. Supporting research and development for vaccines is an essential part of this process as well.
Achieve Gender Equality and Empower all Women and Girls:
While some indicators of gender equality are progressing such as a significant decline in the prevalence of female genital mutilation and early marriage, the overall numbers continue to be high. Moreover, insufficient progress on structural issues at the root of gender equality are progressing, such as a significant decline in the prevalence of female genital mutilation and early marriage, the overall numbers continue to be high. Furthermore, insufficient progress on structural issues at the root of gender inequality such as legal discrimination, unfair social norms and attitudes, decision making on sexual and reproductive issues and low levels of political participation are undermining the ability to achieve sustainable development goal 5.
- Recent data of many countries shows that 18 percent of ever partnered women and girls aged 15 to 49 have experience physical or sexual partner violence in the previous decade;
- The practice of child marriage has continued to decline around the World, largely driven by progress in South Asia, where a girl’s risk of marrying in childhood decreased by about one quarter between 2013 and 2018;
- At least two hundred million girls and women have been subjected to female genital mutilation based on data from 30 countries where the practice is considered and where nationally representative prevalence data is available;
- The SDGs aim to build on these achievements to ensure that there is an end to discrimination against women and girls everywhere. There are still huge inequalities in the labor market in some regions, with women systematically denied equal access to jobs. The unequal division of unpaid care and domestic work and discrimination in public office, all remains huge barriers. Affording women equal rights to economic resources such as land and property are vital targets to realizing this goal. So is ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health. Today there are more women in public office than ever before, but encouraging women leaders will help strengthen policies and legislation for Greater gender equality.
Transforming our world-achieving the SDGs this mini-series presents and explains the 17 newly adopted sustainable development goals. SDGs is a call to action that extends beyond policymakers to Civil Society, business and Universities and this guide provides a fast and preliminary attempt to explain how countries, regions, cities or sectors might start the process of operation and achieving the sustainable development goals. As under scored discussions among key stakeholders are required at local, National, regional and global levels to make the SDGs a reality by 2030.
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